what is good music?

opinions abound as to the merits of a piece of music. we all have our opinions as to music we like and dislike.

i believe there are two ways to judge a musical composition, namely, based upon the intrinsic qualities of the composition or by the reaction you get when listening to the music.

are there any health benefits to listening to a piece of music--physically or psychologically. such an approach relies on extrinsic criteria.

thus with each approach a piece of music may be jidged "good", as to composition, but if someone has a negative reaction to it, it could be judged "bad" based upon one's listening experience.

can a case be made to exclude either as a basis for judging the quality of music ?
I find "good" is not the right word. By your definition something like Schnittke's 2nd violin sonata would be "bad" music, which this piece is anything but. It is highly dissonant, highly atonal ( though it is not readily serially atonal), there is no melody. In fact near the end,
the accompanying piano strucks in the C major key, the basic C chord in all its glory and loud. Wow! Here is the most basic of basic stuff, and it was so out of place! Probably the most gratifying concert I have ever been to yet the piece played would hardly be called "good". So it is more of the aesthetics of music as art, that determines whether the piece is "good" or "bad".

In the world of Adorno, the dialectical master of musical aesthetics, the commercial side of music, he deemed corruptible and not worthy of being considered, it was all "bad". However I take a different take on commercial music, it is just a form of entertainment, just like TV or football, whether it is the Beatles or Nirvana or James Brown or any rap group, its only entertainment in the form of music. So enjoy it and relax, and as the Stones' said..."it's only rock and roll!"
I've actually sat here for 15 minutes wondering "what is good music" and I really have no idea.
I do like chicken wings...............I'm hungry.
Classical music is filled with examples of pieces that were not received well upon first hearing, heck for several years in some cases ... so I don't think initial listener reaction is a good guage of worth or value. I'm sure many of us have had the experience of having an album grow on us. Often it takes time to understand/appreciate the structure and logic of expression.
Anything that people want to hear or appreciate. Your first question seems to be the dichotomy of cerebral (brain) versus carnal (soul). To truely be good it needs a blend of both cerebral and carnal appreciation. The examples that show (not prove) this is some 20th century "classical" music that is just a bunch of noise (I'm talking the stuff that is WAAY out there, not merely just atonal, dissonant, or lacking melody). Such music might not offer much carnal pleasures (but maybe not?). Or take some Britney Spears or some "thump, thump, thump" dance music (some rap music actually has merit regardless of what the close-minded says) whose appreciation is mostly carnal and not cerebral (Beethoven it isn't).

I approach it the same way I do with food and cooking. I find the path is both educating and training myself. It's an outward expression of something from within. It's an art. I'll leave this one to the philosphers.