You can start at a low cost item such as Focusrite Scarlett 2i2 USB for $169. It has everything you said you need. You will need a 3.5mm to 1/4" TRS adapter for your microphone. Just be sure to disable the "48V" phantom power button.
A more audiophile level audio interface would be the Black Lion Audio Revolution 2X2 USB Audio Interface for $399.
If you were willing to split up the audio output and the microphone input requirements into two different devices, you can get a really excellent Headphone DAC/Preamp such as the Topping DX7 Pro for $585. Then just get a cheap Focusrite 2i2 for your microphone input.
If you want to go further, you can even get an audiophile USB card, such as Matrix Element H or the JCAT. (and even add an external linear power supply).
You can take this as far as you want. Costs would obviously keep going up.